The use of graphene and carbon-based nanomaterials in construction enables advanced, multifunctional and auto-response materials. These can respond to different stimuli such as changes in temperature or mechanical stress. The presence of carbon-based nanomaterials not only strengthens the building material (cement and concrete, asphalt, resins, adhesives, paint, etc.) and reduces weight, but also enables faults and cracks to be detected (self-sensoring) and even self-repair. The presence of carbon-based nanomaterials in mastics, putties and adhesives facilitates repairs and maintenance works, thanks to their self-curing capability when an electrical charge is applied, without the need for heating.
Similarly, the use of graphene-based building materials (asphalt, concrete etc.) prevents ice forming thanks to the ability of a carbon-based nanomaterial to raise its temperature under applied voltage by means of the Joule effect (anti-icing, de-icing).